GOOD RELATIONS UNDER DUCHY OF ESTE
Ferrara is the only city in Emilia-Romagna to have an uninterrupted Jewish presence from the middle age to the present. Under the Duchy of Este the community enjoyed its finest years: the dukes offered shelter to refugees from Spain and Portugal in 1492 and from Eastern Europe when Jews were expelled in 1532. The long period of peace ended in 1597,when Ferrara was annexed to the Papal States. In 1627 the ghetto was established. The period of the ghetto definitively came to an end only in 1859.