THE TOWN OF THE “LIVORNINA”
In 1593 the Grand Duke of Tuscany, Ferdinando I de’ Medici, invited to Livorno merchants from any nation – particularly Jews exiled from the Iberian peninsula – offering them rights and protection in the proclamation called “Livornina” . A ghetto was never set up. He offered them the freedom to trade and worship as well as protection from the Inquisition. From the 16th to 18th century, the Livorno Jews were a cultural reference point for the whole Western Diaspora. The historic synagogue was one of the most impressive in Europe.