The establishing of the free port (1648) was followed by the recognition of a stable Jewish community, subject to the ten-year renewal of the capitularies that regulated their conduct. With the area of the first ghetto
, which has been instituted in 1660 around Vico del Campo, now overcrowded, in 1674 the town authorities ruled to move the ghetto to Piazza dei Tessitori, next to the church of St. Augustine. The area, which today is profoundly transformed, was chosen because it was already inhabited by ‘plebeians, who were, of course, quite happy to move elsewhere. At the same time, with the renewal of the capitularies (1675) again harsher conditions were imposed on the Community. Many Jews left Genoa for Livorno; of the two hundred who had lived in the city in middle of the century, now barely a hundred remained. Fear of repercussions on the city’s economy prompted the Republic to alleviate, at least in practice, the climate of constriction, and when the capitularies expired in 1679 the obligation of forced residence was lifted. In the following years the group gradually moved to the district of Molo, between Piazza dell’Olmo (today the Piazza Cavour area) and the Walls of Malapaga. Here, in 1707, a new synagogue
opened, and remained in operation until the inauguration, in 1935, of the present-day synagogue
. With the repeal, for economic reasons, of the last deportation order (1737) the Community was re-admitted in the city in 1752 and the ghetto, the distinguishing marks along with compulsory sermons and forced conversions, were finally abolished. Records corresponding to this period reveal internal reorganisation and relations with other Jewish communities from abroad, which led to a gradual economic and population recovery. After the Napoleonic period, and even more so through participation in the Unification of Italy, the group became fully integrated in public life and local industry.